Thinking about becoming the next Ernest Hemingway? Or Stephen King? It takes a great deal of practice, planning, experience of the world and talent. A good reader is a good writer. Read classics and quality newspapers. Try to contribute to newspapers of your school or community.

1. Write down ideas for your writing, subtitles, or even topic. (It's best to do all of this unless you're given a topic!)
1. 寫出文章思路、標題甚或主題。(除非是命題作文,否則最好列出以上所有要素。)

2. Narrow down your list to unimportant facts and details so you have your set planned.
2. 清除不必要的要素和細節,集中于主要目標。

3. Write an outline by listing the details for each paragraph.
3. 擬寫提綱,列出各段落細節。

4. By now you should have basically your whole story planned. If not: make an additional outline, edit your work, add some brainstorm ideas, or make an idea web.
4. 這時你文章的基本框架應該已經出爐。若沒有,可再擬提綱、修改既定思路,或增加新靈感,列出思想大綱。

5. You're now ready to start your "sloppy copy," otherwise known as your first draft! Begin by writing down an essay-looking model from which to work.
5. 現在還不可倉促組稿——也就是打草稿!先寫一個行之有效的論文框架吧。

6. Revise your work with another color.
6. 用不同顏色的筆修改文章。

7. Edit! Look in the dictionary to check your spelling and look in the thesaurus to vary your word choices and make your written voice more interesting.
7. 仔細修改!查字典看是否拼寫錯誤,或從辭典里選出更貼切的詞語,一定要讓行文更生動有趣。

8. Read your new draft aloud to anyone and accept any feedback. Doing this aloud will just let you know whether it needs some work. If you got ahead of yourself and forgot letters or punctuation, you will immediately realize it. Add any changes in a seventh color.
8. 大聲讀出新文稿,聽聽別人的意見。大聲讀出來會有意外收獲。寫的時候你或許會漏掉某些詞語或標點,讀出來時你就能發現這些錯誤。然后再用不同顏色的筆作修改。

9. Do your second draft. Do not skip lines. Write in "essay form."
9. 重寫文稿。一定要一板一眼以論文格式寫出來。

10. If you are happy with the essay now, you can turn it in for credit/publishing, after editing for spelling and grammar. If you're not, do steps 4, 5, and 6 again.
10. 拼寫和語法準確無誤后,如果你對文章比較滿意,可以嘗試投稿。如果不甚滿意,回到第4、5、6步驟,重寫。


Make a mnemonic device to help you remember things you often forget.

Similes and metaphors are fun to use!

Read books, newspapers, and magazines to help you find interesting facts you could use in your writing.

The info sources are for finding info about a "knowledge essay".

Teachers admire people who work hard instead of racing to finish the essay at the last minute.

If you are going to use a computer, write out your story or essay by hand first, then type it on a computer. Writing by hand prepares you for essay tests. It also encourages very different ways of thinking; computers can tend to make work look more "finished" or "official" than it really is.

Use complete words and sentences. An essay or story is not a chatroom.

Good writers read a lot. Read all the time: magazines, novels, the paper, anything. Reading a wide range of material increases your vocabulary and gives you a sense of what you're trying to achieve.

Just have fun while writing. Writing shouldn't be torture, it is a skill.


1. Be careful to stay on topic. If you are writing about something unimportant, you may find that your main message becomes buried under trivial stuff. This makes editing particularly important.
1. 要緊扣主題。如果你盡寫一些無關緊要的東西,文章主旨就會不得要領。所以,修改步驟尤為重要。

2. Be sure that your writing is well organized! Poorly organized writing may not read well and may even confuse your readers. As you go from paragraph to paragraph, check for cohesion. Try to organize your paragraphs into some kind of logical order.
2. 要結構清晰。結構混亂的文章艱澀難讀,易給讀者造成困惑。要檢查段落的連貫性。段落安排要有邏輯。

3. Writing takes patience and practice.
3. 寫作需要付諸耐心和實踐。

4. Use synonyms with care. There is no quicker way to sound ignorant than to use a word as the wrong part of speech or in the wrong context. Always look up words in the dictionary and make sure you understand their meaning before using them.
4. 慎用近義詞。講稿或行文中用錯詞是件很蠢的事情。務必查字典,確保自己對詞義非常清楚。

5. Do not plagiarize! Realize that your references are very important in essays. They even lend credibility to your research. If you are writing something for a writing class, you may want to ask your teacher how to cite your references because there are many different styles.
5. 杜絕抄襲!論文的參考文獻很重要,甚至能為你的課題增光添彩。參考文獻的引用有多種形式,如果你是在完成寫作課的任務,可以向老師問問清楚。